GISta Hungarorum: OTKA K 111766 project
Elaboration of GIS for supporting research on the history of Austria-Hungary is an inter- or multidisciplinary project plan supported by the Hungarian Research Fund with 50,000 EUR between 2015 and 2017. The project aimed at collecting statistical data, organising them into databases and visualizing socio-demographic phenomena, while analyzing spatial patterns as well as temporal changes. The methods applied here rarely appeared in historical research, but are well-known in human geography, thus the project can be considered as an attempt to implement new methods and approaches – the regional aspect (through tracing peripheries, disparities, inequalities), which was underrepresented in Hungarian historiography – with the purpose of broadening our knowledge. The composition of the team also reflects this multidisciplinarity. We strongly believe that outputs can also be useful for other disciplines beyond history (geography, ethnography, demography, regional studies). The selection of the research area was driven by the assumption that the research might be important for the researchers of the successor states of Austria-Hungary as well – beyond Hungarian historians – thus it might have regional relevance. Although recent trends (historical GIS, neo-geography) utilize the idea of storing, processing and visualizing data masses, that way enhancing the possibilities of evaluation, this multidisciplinary approach rarely appeared in Hungarian historical research up to now. The key idea was (1) to create fine-resolution, well-organised, transparent and expandable databases for public use free of charge, (2) to visualize the temporal and spatial aspects of socio-demographic phenomena on cartograms (if they had any), and (3) to analyze socio-economic phenomena without spatial patterns (4) in order to answer long-debated questions in connection with the works of John Komlos, Scott M. Eddie, etc. GIS combined with softwares developed for multivariate statistical analysis of datasets (SPSS) offer possibility for the automatization of data processing. Beyond being a basic research, the project offers possibilities for applied science as well, supporting future research by extending the database, by reducing time required for further investigations, and by promoting comparative studies and mass-evaluation of data (i.e. tracing the origin of structural and socio-demographic problems) and cooperation with different disciplines. Thus the elaboration of the know-how and the creation of base maps and databases and the organisation of their free accessibility can be considered R&D activity. The need for such databases is urging. 19th century Hungary made great efforts to collect statistical data from every aspect of life. Our statistical literature and experts are well-known (Fényes, 1836-1840, 1851, Keleti K. 1871, 1875, A magyar mezőgazdasági… 1895, Jekelfalussy 1892, A magyar korona országainak …). However, systematic digitisation of these records has not been completed yet, although some progress was made (see: http://mtdaportal.extra.hu/adatbazisok.html; databases published here contain: A magyar korona… 1882, Magyarország helységnévtára, 1885, Vargha Gy. 1878, Fényes 1836-1840). Unfortunately, most of the digitised data (Klimotheca, Library of the Central Statistical Bureau) are not organised in databases, with the exception of the census in 1880. The existing databases usually lack digital base maps in the background for spatial analysis. Historical researches in Hungary tended to neglect this approach based on visualization and mass evaluation of data, although the demand is increasing, and results may be useful for scientists dealing with social geography as well. This ignorance decreased the competitiveness of historians compared to other researchers slowly infiltrating into the fields of historical research, hunting down topics and financial resources. This need for the transfer of knowledge is confirmed by the institutional composition of the team. Integrating the methods of GIS and multivariate statistics into history (cliometry and historical GIS) in order to reduce costs and time of regional-scale comparative socio-economic researches while enhancing competitiveness of historians at the same time by transferring knowledge, looks to be promising. Contrary to the above mentioned efforts and achievements, several problems still remained unresolved. A public, accessible digital base map on the administrative units of historical Hungary (settlement level) is still missing, not to mention the database behind. The published atlases of East-Central-Europe and Austria-Hungary neither use same reference unit, territorial unit and projections system on maps, nor easily accessible or expandable. Many of these thematic maps are not based on GIS (maps are not connected to databases, therefore they are not reusable, and do not offer possibility for further mathematical or logical applications, creating queries). Such is the situation regarding the settlement level ethnic maps created by Kocsis K. – Bottlik Zs – Tátrai P. (2006). Although summarizing their former efforts Kocsis K. and Tátrai P. (2012) created a series of maps on ethnic changes of Hungary at settlement-scale, but beyond ethnic changes other socio-demographic processes do ot appear. The IX/2 vol. of the Habsburgermonarchie publishes socio-demographic data in maps at district level, but unfortunately only for the Austrian parts, while Hungary is represented by county level data. Contrary to this, the atlas published by Rónai A. (1945) uses districts as units for illustrating the territorial aspects of socio-economic phenomena in Hungary, but data are mainly after 1930. This atlas (first published in 1945) was reprinted by using a general graphical software as original data were missing (Zentai L., 1994), definitely not based on GIS-techniques. Our goal is to unite these maps using GIS techniques and fill them up with data referring to socio-demographic phenomena. Nagy B. (Institute of History, HAS) also created the administrative map of Hungary at settlement level in Corel Draw, but also without the possibility of attaching data (that can be considered as a base map for our research). The Arcanum kft. also made efforts to publish digitised databases, but maps and databases were rarely linked together. Similar GIS-based efforts were made by the RadixIndex (recording names from Jékelfalussy, 1892), but only at county-scale and many services are not free of charge (http://www.radixindex.com/). The achievements of the MNL OL (National Archives of Hungary) on digital publishing the conscriptions of 1715 and 1720 is another good example for database building without GIS techniques and thematic maps. http://mnl.gov.hu/bal_menusor/hasznalat/segedletek/adatbazisok.html
- A district-level digital GIS basemap of Austria-Hungary (1910)
- The community-level digital GIS basemap of Croatia (1910)
- The settlement-level digital GIS basemap of historical Hungary (1910)
- Database for Austria-Hungary (socio-economic data, 1860s-1910s)
- Database for Croatia (socio-demographic and economic data, community level, district level, county level, 1880s-1910s)
- Database for Hungary (socio-demographic and economic data, community level, district level, county level, 1880s-1910s)
- Website (www.gistory.hu)
- Separate volume on peripherization.
- Interactive atlas (demo for non-GIS users)
- Periodical for GIS-based historical studies
- Atlas for Hungary (pdf)
|Bottlik, Zsolt||ELTE||history, geography, GIS|
|Demeter, Gábor||HAS RCH Inst. History||history, geography,|
|Frisnyák, Zsuzsa||HAS RCH Inst. History||history, transportation, traffic|
|Jakobi, Ákos||ELTE||geography, GIS, regional analysis|
|Nagy, Béla||HAS RCH Inst. History||cartography|
|Nagy, Mariann||Pécs Univ.||agrarian history|
|Németh, Gábor||Debrecen Univ.||GIS|
|Pénzes, János||Debrecen Univ||geography, regional analysis|
|Radics, Zsolt||Debrecen Univ||history, geography|
|Szabó, Gergely||Debrecen Univ||geography, GIS|
|Szulovszky, János||HAS RCH Inst. History||ethnography, history|
In cooperation with: Balázs, Pál (Sopron); Bán, Gergely (DE); Kollányi, László (SZIE); Kollányi, Péter; Konkoly-Gyuró, Éva (Sopron), Kővári, Ágnes; N. Fodor, János (ELTE) and Pap, József (EKE).
To access data we offer to use Google Chrome or Opera browser.
The research has been realized within the frames of OTKA (K 111766) with the support of the Library of the Central Statistical Bureau and the** Augustin Hirschvogel Fellowship (IOS, Regensburg) and the **Bulgarian-Hungarian History Commission.
In memoriam László Katus and Gyula Benda.
Creative Commons: CC BY-NC. In case of using these materials please refer to GISta Hungarorum (OTKA K 111766) in your publications.
A.) In order to trace the socio-economic and demographic phenomena in historical Hungary between 1870 and 1910 the
- settlement level (polygon type – name: MOtelepules)
- settlement level (point type – name: MO_tel_KP; where points represent the center of settlements)
- district level (polygon type – name: MO Jaras)
- district level with major towns (polygon type – name: MO JarasVaros)
- county level (polygon type – name: MO_Megye)
- town-level, including smaller towns (point type – name: TJVRTV_Pont1)
- town level (point type – name: TJVPont1)
digital GIS-aided base maps of Hungary was created (in Pseudo-Mercator and Lambert projection, using WGS 84 date and UTF-16 characters). The map represents the administrative boundaries in 1910 at all level. The resolution of the original map (the one that was digitized using ArcGIS 10.2) was 1:400,000 thus the accuracy of the end-product does not reach the accuracy of cadastral maps (boundaries do not match when the digitized GIS-aided map is overlain on cadastral maps or on Google Earth-maps; there is a general 0.5-1 kms inaccuracy regarding settlement boundaries).
In order to trace the socio-economic and demographic phenomena in historical Hungary between 1870 and 1910 shape files containing * waters (lakes and rivers – see shape files in Topo folder and vizrajz folder: folyokL, folyok KM, to) * roads (state and county: shape allut, megyeiut, kozlut) * railroads (shape vasutvonal, vasutallomas) were created as auxiliary maps.
Shape-files can be downloaded from here.
Beside these another base map indicating settlement boundaries, with similar resolution (1:350,000), but from an earlier period (1884) was created in kmz format (it can be visualized in Google Earth, but its accuracy did not exceed 0.5-1 km, therefore it cannot be properly overlain on boundaries indicated in satellite pictures in Google Earth), but shape-files has not been created from it.
Download basemap from here.
B.) In order to trace the socio-economic and demographic phenomena in historical Croatia between 1870 and 1910 the
- political-community level (polygon type – name: HR_PolKoz)
- political-community level (point-type – name: HR_PolKoz_KP)
- district level (polygon – name: HR_Jaras)
- county level (polygon – name: HR_Megye)
digital GIS-aided base maps of Croatia was created (in Pseudo-Mercator and Lambert projection, using WGS 84 date and UTF-16 coding). The map represents the administrative boundaries in 1910 at all level. The resolution of the original map (the one that was digitized using ArcGIS 10.2) was 1:400,000 thus the accuracy of the end-product does not reach the accuracy of cadastral maps (boundaries do not match when the digitized GIS-aided map is overlain on cadastral maps or on Google Earth-maps; there is a general 0.5-1 kms inaccuracy regarding settlement boundaries).
Dowload shape-files from here.
Attention! Though the Hungarian and Croatian parts are geo-referenced, therefore can be merged or visualized within the same project, the hierarchic levels and resolution of the Hungarian and Croatian parts are different! Croatian data were not provided at settlement level, the most detailed descriptions are given at tax-community level (religion and ethnic distribution). Most of the data can be visualized at political community-level, which is detailed than the district-level approach, but does not reach the resolution of settlement-level basemaps.
C.) In order to trace the socio-economic and demographic phenomena in the Cisleithanian parts of Austria-Hungary between 1870 and 1910 the
- region (polygon),
- district (polygon),
- Gerichtsbezirk-level (polygon and point-type) and
- tax-district (polygon)
digital GIS-aided base maps were created in Pseudo-Mercator and Lambert projection, using WGS 84 date and UTF-16 coding).
Download shapefiles from here.
The map represents the administrative boundaries in 1910 at all level. The resolution of the original map (the one that was digitized using ArcGIS 10.2) was 1:400,000 thus the accuracy of the end-product does not reach the accuracy of cadastral maps (boundaries do not match when the digitized GIS-aided map is overlain on cadastral maps or on Google Earth-maps; there is a general 0.5-1 kms inaccuracy regarding settlement boundaries).
As aid-material the railway-network published in die Habsburgermonarchie Vol. IX/2 was also digitized.
Attention! The three different administrative levels given for Cisleithania are not equivalent to the Hungarian hierarchic levels, but the same projection system of the shape-files makes it possible to merge or combine Hungarian and Cisleithanian parts even of different resolution (for example: Gerichtsbezirk – Hungarian districts).
Attention! The possible combinations are limited by data availability. The visualization of certain phenomena cannot be extended to the whole area of Austria-Hungary at the same hierarchic level because of the differences in census question and conscription methods. Sometimes phenomena are comparable only at different (and not at the most detailed) hierarchic levels in the Cisleithanian and Hungarian parts.
D.) In order to illustrate socio-demographic and economic phenomena for the period between 1850 and 1867 (characterized by quickly changing administrative boundaries and hierarchy) new, hybrid base-maps were created from the existing ones by aggregating them to the appropriate hierarchic level (determined by the levels of data-accessibility). These hybrid maps are composed of maps with different original resolution and contain entities from different hierarchic levels for the different parts. Thus these are considered inaccurate (from cadastral point of view), but still relevant to illustrate phenomena on maps (they are georeferenced in the same projection as the formerly mentioned maps, and higher-level administrative units are usually created by aggregating-merging the smallest entities, thus lines representing the different hierarchic levels tend to overlap).
Click here to download hybrid maps.
In order to trace the different entities and hierarchic levels a correspondence table for Croatia, Cisleithania and Hungary are given here: Korrespondencia táblázat
Shape files can be opened in Mapinfo, ArcGIS and QGIS.
Click here to dowload the free package of Quantum GIS.
Click here to download a short users’ manual for QGIS.
Click here to download a short users’ manual for ArcGIS.
The databases published here all can be attached to basemaps of different hierarchic levels based on common ID.
In the case of Hungary attachment is possible at settlement, district, town and county levels.
In the case of Croatia attachment is possible at political community, district and county level.
In case of Cisleithania most of the data are recorded at district level using the IDs realizing 1-1 connections.
Not all data type is available at all hierarchic level due to the differences in official statistics. Not all data type is available for the whole area.
In general we tried to give data at the lowest (published) hierarchic level. In general these data can be aggregated to higher levels using the IDs (with the help of Access of Excel). We did not plan to collect and digitize unpublished data. We did not aim to go below the lowest (published) entities: in other words we did not use up the original census sheets (either existing or were destroyed during the decades)
Settlement ID-s reflect the situation in 1910, such as the basemaps did. This means that in case of maps and data illustrating phenomena from an earlier period some adjustments were required according to the (numerous) administrative changes in Hungary (these included: renamed settlements, merging and splitting administrative areas). We tried to carry out these adjustments in the data files too and always marked those files, when we did not. We also kept the original files to trace and control changes (these are unpublished xls files). Practically this means that any phenomena in 1880 would be visualized under 1910 adminstrative areas. This means that if two settlements (existing formerly separately) were merged by 1910, the original settlements (with all their data) were also merged, even when illustrating phenomena in the 1880s. Thus the two original settlement neither have any IDs, nor any entities symbolizing them on the map, only the aggregated ’new’ settlement (with aggregated data) has ID and was illustrated on maps (though it did not exist in that form at that time). This enabled us to make our maps appropriate both for spatial and temporal comparisons (to illustrate the dynamics of a phenomenon – to compare the same entities at different time horizons). Original rows were not deleted just left unmarked. In order to identify administrative changes if needed, supplementary xls files for the years 1767, 1865, 1880, 1895 are also provided here. These indicate all changes (notes or colours).
Some data (agrarian data for Transylvania from 1767 and 1865) are not available for the whole region or at the most detailed resolution.
A.) During the project we integrated numerous settlement-level variables for Hungary into a database (Access). The data were selected from the published material of the Central Statistical Bureau (the MSK). We did not use unpublished data. The used volumes were the following:
- A magyar korona országaiban az 1881. év elején végrehajtott népszámlálás eredményei. Bp. Országos Kir. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, 1882. http://mtdaportal.extra.hu/adatbazisok.html
- A magyar korona országainak 1900. évi népszámlálása: Első rész. A népesség általános leírása községenkint. Magyar Statisztikai Közlemények, új sorozat, 1. kötet. Kir. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal; Bp. 1902.
- A magyar korona országainak 1900. évi népszámlálása: Második rész. A népesség foglalkozása községenkint. Magyar Statisztikai Közlemények, új sorozat, 2. kötet. Bp. Magyar Kir. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, 1904.
- A magyar korona országainak mezőgazdasági statisztikája: A magyar mezőgazdasági statisztika fejlődése s az 1895. VIII. évi törvényczikk alapján végrehajtott összeírás főbb eredményei községenkint. Országos Magyar Királyi Statisztikai Hivatal. Bp. Pesti Könyvnyomda Rt. 1897.
- A magyar korona országainak 1900. évi népszámlálása: Harmadik rész. A népesség részletes leirása. Magyar Statisztikai Közlemények, új sorozat, 5. kötet Magyar Kir. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal; 1907.
- A Magyar Szent Korona országainak 1910. évi népszámlálása. Első rész. A népesség főbb adatai községek és népesebb puszták, telepek szerint. Magyar Statisztikai Közlemények, új sorozat, 42. kötet Magyar Kir. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal; 1912.
- A Magyar Szent Korona országainak 1901–1910. évi népmozgalma községenkint. Magyar statisztikai közlemények. új sorozat, 46. kötet. Bp., Magyar Királyi Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, 1913.
- A Magyar Szent Korona országainak 1910. évi népszámlálása. Második rész. A népesség foglalkozása és a nagyipari vállalatok községenkint. Magyar Statisztikai Közlemények, új sorozat, 48. kötet Bp. Magyar Kir. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, 1913.
- A Magyar Szent Korona országainak 1910. évi népszámlálása. Harmadik rész. A népesség foglalkozása részletesen és a vállalati statisztika. Magyar Statisztikai Közlemények, új sorozat, 52. kötet. Bp. Magyar Kir. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, 1914.
- A Magyar Szent Korona országainak 1910. évi népszámlálása. 4. r. A népesség foglalkozása a főbb demográfiai adatokkal egybevetve s a népesség ház- és földbirtokviszonyai. Magyar statisztikai közlemények, új sorozat, 56. kötet. Bp., Magyar Kir. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal 1915.
- Magyarország községeinek háztartása az 1908. évben. Magyar Statisztikai Közlemények, új sorozat, 39. kötet. Bp., 1913.
- Jekelfalussy J. (szerk.) (1892): Magyarország iparosainak és kereskedőinek czím- és lakjegyzéke. Bp.
- Vargha Gy. (szerk.) (1878): Magyarország egyletei és társulatai 1878-ban. Bp.
- Magyarország helységnévtára Bp. 1885, 1892.
- Magyarország művelési ágak szerinti területe és földjövedelme. Buda, 1865.
- Magyar Statisztikai Közlemények, 4. 7. 19. 27. 30. 32. és 50. kötetének kartogramjai
- A 63 vármegye adóközségeinek területe és kataszteri tisztajövedelme mívelési áganként és osztályonként az 1909. évi V. t.-c. alapján (az összes magyarországi vármegyére).
Agrarian data are from 1767, 1865, 1895 and 1910. However these are not consistent.
We have industrial data from 1892, 1900 and 1910, but neither these are consistent.
In the case of other variables (linguistic, religious, literacy rate) a temporal comparison for 1880 and 1910 can be carried out.
Click here to download settlement level database for Hungary .
See correspondence-table for variables and their abbreviations (Hungarian names) (9).
The database is integrated into Access. Using the query function new (unregistered) variables or or variables referring to % and per capita values, and variables referring to temporal changes can be created from the basic variables. Datasheets can be exported in dbf4 and xls formats, which are compatible with ArcGIS in order to visualize the regional pattern of phenomena. For further analysis of phenomena without any spatial patterns, data can be processed by SPSS (or PSPP).
The central table of the database contains the administrative metadata (Settlement ID, County ID and other administrative divisions, like statistical regions). A separate table contains the present name of the settlements and their present location (country). Another table contains the name variants and changes between 1900-1912, another one includes the geographical coordinates. In order to trace other changes between 1767-1895 use the xls supplementary material.
The subsequent tables contain statistical data from the censuses (MSK, Central Statistical Bureau), from other volumes (postal delivery data, production of electricity, petrol stations, civil associations, banking etc.).
Data in the databanse might differ from the original. There are two reasons for this: (1) the person recording the data committed a mistake and mistyped data or (2) he/she tried to correct the evidently wrong original data published in the official volumes (1865, agrarian statistics). In some cases settlements are missing from the database (data on agrarian incomes, 1910 – cca. 20 small settlements; data on carts – one district). There are some unidentified polygons on the basemap too, but these are exclaves and enclaves, so each settlement – 12,542 – can be mapped.
During the project we carried out the aggregation of settlement-level data to district level. The values were only calculated to the original variables (so not for per capita or % values, because it would have been methodologically incorrect). Aggregated per capita and % values can be calculated either using the aggregated basic values provided in xls tables (for example: births/population = natural reproduction rate), or using the query function of the SPSS (with the aid of IDs referring to different hierarchic levels). The district IDs can be found separately in table referring to the population number in 1869.
Click here to download census data aggregated to district level.
During the research settlement-level agrarian data for 1865 and 1895 were also aggregated to district level, as well as the data from cartograms published at the volumes of the MSK.
During the research county-level agrarian data for 1895, well as the data from cartograms published at the volumes of the MSK were also integrated into a database.
Download county-level data from here.
*Attention! In this case not the original variables were aggregated to county-level, but we incorporated other variables, which were not published at settlement level. Settlement-level data can be aggregated to county level with the aid of the IDs, using the query function of the Access. *
During the research an inventory of artizans from 1892 was also recorded.
B.) During the research data regarding Croatia were also recorded and integrated into a database. Data are recorded at different hierarchic levels compared to the settlement-level Hungarian data, furthermore the Hungarian census did not always contain data on Croatia regarding each question investigated. Therefore our Croatian database is limited. in order to overcome this and distribute more data we organized the data of statistical maps published at the site of the IOS, GeoPortOst into xls spreadsheets http://www.geoportost.ios-regensburg.de/geoportal/ - though these are mainly district-level data.
Click here to download community level Croatian data from the Hungarian censuses.
Click here to download district-level Croatian data.
The structure of the Croatian database is similar to the Hungarian database. Files comprise data from 1880, 1895, 1900 and 1910, but quite inconsistent owing to the changing methodology of statistical conscriptions. Thus temporal comparisons are rather limited. For the full description of variables see details in the Access menu.
C.) Data on Cisleithania were also organized into database using the official statistics from 1910 (http://www.anno.onb.ac.at/ost.htm) Some variables were re-recorded from the maps of die Habsburgermonarchie Vol. IX/2. Our goal was to offer a finer resolution for the Transleithanian parts (the volume illustrates Hungarian data only at county-scale) by combining maps on Cisleithania and Hungary using more detailed database for the latter. The scope of the research make us unable to carry out temporal comparisons (we have data only from the 1860s, recorded at different administrative level). The differences between the two census systems also limit the number of comparable variables that could be illustrated together on one map with fine resolution.
Click here to download the database for the Cisleithanian parts of Austria-Hungary.
D.) The data referring to the socio-economic development of Austria and Hungary between 1850-1867 compiled by László Katus were also integrated into the database. However, due to the quickly changing administrative boundaries, due to the data referring to different administrative levels and the inconsistency (incomparability) of datasets from 1850s and 1860s these are hardly comaparable to each other and to later developments. The visualization of data is only possible through numerous hybrid maps.
Data are available in xls form here.
Attention! Some of the entities in the xls files does not have ID. Do not forget to check and provide ID before attaching the file to the map. Use the IDs given in the shapefile! Variable names in the xls file might be too long. Please shorten them to one row and do not forget to make them unique! ArcGIS is able to read xls files. However, if this doen not work, please transform the xls file into an Access table (import from xls) then export it as dbf4. (In this case do not forget thant variable names cannot be longer than 8 strings. Identical variable names – in case of the first 8 character – won’t be exported. Please make sure that variable names are different concerning their first 8 characters. Avoid special characters and space.)
Further mathematical and logical operations are possible both in Access and in ArcGIS.
E.) As a pilot project (feasibility study) for our project the 1870 census data were processed for Sátoraljaújhely town. This is a family-level database (the only one in our project) based on the original data-sheets containing 10,000 persons, 1100 houses, 2250 households.
Download database and shapefile from here.
Project outputs and results
A.) Interactive demo atlas for Hungary
For everyday users not accustomed to GIS-technologies a bilingual collection of interactive maps (cca. 80) was created from the basic variables recorded in the database by the Kollányi brothers using their AtlasBuilder (www.terinfous.com) in order to demonstrate the main project results. Enlarge maps and identify settlements with their data.
Click here to download the GISta Hungarorum demo atlas.
B.) Containing more than 400 non-interactive maps a bilingual Historical Geographical Atlas of Hungary for the Regional Analysis of Socio-Economic Phenomena (1869–1910) was created available here in pdf formats (file size exceeds 512 Mbyte, therefore 1 Gbyte ROM is highly recommended).
We plan to edit an atlas for Croatia and Cisleithania too (2018/2019) based on the recorded data.
C.) Studies on the peripheries of historical Hungary
The multidisciplinary character of the research was provided not only by the methods, but by secondary project goals as well. Georgraphers involved in this basically historical research were seeking the answers for questions like
- which were the peripheral zones of Hungary in 1910, and where were the developed regions located;
- whether these peripheries were persistent, disappearing or evolved recently;
- which variables can be applied in a research aiming at identifying peripheries (is there correlation between the recorded variables, which are the independent variables that are appropriate for such investigations, etc.); how can different sets of variables influence the result (the patterns);
- which variables can be used as proxies substituting the variables that are used in present-day research on peripheries (the questions of the census changed remarkably, such as the phenomena referring to underdevelopment – like alphabetisation);
During the course of research four geographers received our dataset and were asked to trace peripheries using different methods.
Download comparative studies from here (in Hungarian).
D.) Sátoraljaújhely, 1870
The data on Sátoraljaújhely were evaluated in a separate volume including phenomena both with and without spatial aspects.
Demeter, Gábor – Bagdi, Róbert:* An analysis of the spatial pattern and social differentiation of the society in Sátoraljaújhely, 1870 (GIS applications in historical research)*. Debrecen–Budapest, 2016. 112. old.
Click here to download the volume (in Hungarian).
E.) New periodicals
GIStorical Studies was established in 2018 as a result of the GISta Hungarorum project. It publishes historical studies on East Central Europe aided by GIS-applications.
Download journal here.
F.) Calendar for 2018 (promo)
Click here to download.